Timeline bf the far future — fli' the free — ' Firefly.
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Estimated time until a supermassive black hole with a mass of 20 trillion solar masses decays by the Hawking
process? This marks the end of the Black Hole Era. Beyond this time, if protons do decay, the Universe
enters the Dark Era, in which all physical objects have decayed to subatomic particles, gradually winding down
to their final energy
Estimated high time fer all nucleons in the observable Universe to decay (if they don' t via the above process),
through any one of many different mechanisms allowed in modern Particle physics ( baryon
processes, virtual black holes, , etc.), on time scales of Itt"' to If") years?
Assuming protons do not decay, the estimated time until all baryon's matter has either fused together to fbgm
or decayed feom a higher mass element into ] (see iron star)
Low estimate fer the time until all matter collapses into black holes, assuming no proton
Subsequent Black Hole Era and transition to the Dark Era are, on this timescale, instantaneous.
3 is released. WI D)
Estimated time fer random quantum fluctuations to generate a new Big Bang, according to Carroll and
1010 High estimate fbr the time until all Into black holes, again assuming no proton
1010120 High estimate fer the time fer the Universe to reach its final energy staters
Scale of an estimated Poincare recurrence time fer the quantum state of a hypothetical box containing an
66 isolated black hole of stellar mass_[ m This time assumes a statistical model subject to Poincare recurrence.
101010 - A much simplified way of thinking about this time is that in a model in which history repeats itself arbitrarily
many times due to properties of statistical mechanics, this is the time scale when it will first be somewhat
similar [fer a reasonable choice of "similar") to its current state again.
Tr Scale of an estimated Poincare recurrence time fer the quantum state of a hypothetical box containing a black
IO hole with the mass within the presently visible region of the Universe?
Scale of an estimated Poincare recurrence time fer the quantum state of a hypothetical box containing a black
hole with the estimated mass bathe entire Universe, observable or not, assuming Linde' s chaotic inflationary
model with an whose mass is ‘IVE Planck masses_[ m